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"appendix.A" from the official MiNT-Documentation of the latest kernal release.

For questions, suggestions, critism etc. please email me.

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Appendix A: Memory Protection

Memory protection works on a per-process basis.  Unless it uses the special
mode bits in Mxalloc(), a process' entire text+data+bss and any memory it
allocates will be of the same type.  There are four types of memory:

	1. Private.  Only the process itself (and the OS) can use the memory.

	2. Global.  This memory is totally unprotected.

	3. Super.  This memory can be accessed by anybody from Super mode.

	4. Private/readable.  Anybody can read, nobody else can write.

By default, all processes load into private memory.  If a program
terminates and remains resident with the Ptermres() system call, then
its private memory will be converted to Super memory; that's because
TSRs won't work in private memory. Some TSRs may in fact need to be
set to load into global memory (if they provide services for user
mode programs).  There are other programs which need to grant wider access
to their memory space: for example, the Gulam CLI is
one, because Gulam's children can call Gulam through a pointer found in the
system variable space.  But Gulam is a bad choice of shell anyway, because
you can't run more than one of them.  Current versions of STeno also must
grant wider access, because it passes data to STalker using shared memory;
private/readable is adequate for that.

Programs that load before MiNT does (i.e. in the AUTO folder) will find
themselves in global memory.  This is the easiest way to be sure that
your TSRs will go on working: RAMdisks, FOLDR100, CACHE080, etc. all
work when loaded that way.

Notice that a process can grant wider access to its own address space, but
it can't change the access permissions of any other process' space. If you
set the PRGFLAGS of some process so it loads into global memory, that
doesn't mean it can access anybody else's memory, it just means that
anybody can access ITS memory.


PRGFLAGS for protection:

	The second-least-significant nybble of PRGFLAGS is the default mode
for your program's memory protection.

	0x00: private memory.  Only you and the AES can touch it.
	0x10: Global: anybody can touch it.
	0x20: super: anybody who is supervisor can touch it.
	0x30: private/readable: anybody can read, nobody else can write.

	Other values are reserved for Atari use and/or future modes.

You can use PRGFLAGS.PRG to change the PRGFLAGS value for any program. From
the shell, say (for example) "prgflags 0xf0 0x10 myprog.prg" to set
"myprog.prg" to "global" (0x10).  The way you use PRGFLAGS is to give it
two numbers, then the program name(s) to operate on.  The first number is
taken as a mask, and the second as a value: bits which are one in the mask
will be set to the corresponding bits in the value; bits which are zero in
the mask will not be changed.  Thus the example sets bits 4-7 to "0001"
and leaves all other bits alone.

You can specify the protection you want on a region when you Malloc it:
call Mxalloc(size,mode), where the least-significant nybble of "mode"
means what it always has, and the next four bits are the desired
protection mode:

	0x00	default (whatever's in your PRGFLAGS)
	0x10	private
	0x20	global
	0x30	super
	0x40	readable

	0x4000	NO-FREE (see below)


You can use Fopen() on u:\proc\*.<pid> to get a file handle to a process.
Then you can use Fcntl() to get and set things about that process.

	#include <osbind.h>
	#include <mintbind.h>
	#include <filesys.h>	/* for PBASEADDR and other constants */
	#include <uproc.h>	/* for struct PROCESS and other things */

	long baseaddr;
	long ctxtsize;
	long procaddr;
	long flags;
	char buf[14];
	int fd;
	PROCESS proc;		/* structure from uproc.h */
	CONTEXT ctxt;

	fd = Fopen(buf,2);

	    Puts the basepage address of the process in arg.

	    Puts the size of a MiNT context at arg.

	    Puts the address of the MiNT process structure for the process
	    in arg.  To read the process structure do this:


	    To read the user context (registers, etc.) do this:


	    To read any part of the memory owned by the process, do this:


	    This Fread will only work if the region you want to read is in
	    fact owned by the process that 'fd' refers to.  If the process
	    terminates, then the handle becomes invalid.

	    If you Fopen process zero (MiNT itself) then you can Fseek to
	    any address that is managed by MiNT and read or write there.
	    This is for debuggers and similarly dangerous tools.

	    Puts the low 16 bits of a process' PRGFLAGS into 'flags'.

	    Sets the low 16 bits of a process' PRGFLAGS from 'flags'.

See also Appendix B (Debugging) for other uses for U:\PROC.

To review, here are all the defined bits in the PRGFLAGS field of PRG file
headers, and what they mean:

	31-28	This number, plus one, times 128K, is the minimum amount
		of alternative RAM that is acceptable.  Used when there
		is more ST RAM than alternative RAM.

	27-13	Reserved; currently unused. All programs should use 0 here.

	12	Shared text bit. If set, the operating system will allow
		the text segment of the program to be shared, i.e. if
		3 copies of the program are running, there are 3 data and
		bss areas but only 1 text segment is shared amongst
		compiled to use a base register for data and bss. Very
		few existing programs can use this.

	11-8	Reserved; currently unused. All programs should use 0 here.

	7-4	This is the default memory-protection mode:
		0=private, 1=global, 2=super, 3=world-readable.

	3	Reserved; currently unused. All programs should use 0 here.

	2	When 1, Malloc calls may be satisfied from alternative RAM.

	1	When 1, the program may load into alternative RAM.

	0	When 1, the program loads faster: the heap is not cleared.

And in Mxalloc's "mode" argument...


	0-2	0: ST RAM only
		1: Alternative RAM only
		2: Either, ST RAM preferred
		3: Either, alternative RAM preferred

	3:	Reserved

	4-7	0: Default (from your PRGFLAGS)
		1: Private
		2: Global
		3: Super
		4: World-readable
		other values are undefined and reserved.

		When set, this bit means "if the owner of this region
		terminates, don't free this region. Instead, let MiNT
		inherit it, so it'll never be freed."  This is a special
		mode meant for the OS only, and may not remain available
		to user processes.

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Last Update: Thu Apr 27 21:43 MET 2000     by